VI-1 - Entre Juifs et Chrétiens, Jésus (2001)

Revue des Facultés de Théologie et de Philosophie


Daniel Marguerat - The historical Jesus: a quest for the unattainable star? An appraisal of the third Quest

The third Quest for the historical Jesus has re-opened the debate concerning research findings. Although this consists of a nebulous set of dissimilar positions rather than a homogenous trend, five previous points of consensus are being challenged by the constellation of researchers. The new paradigm may be summarised in five points:

  • The documentary sources on Jesus are spread out and their use is thereby modified.
  • A notable return to the Jewishness of Jesus of Nazareth.
  • The heart of Jesus' action is no longer seen as a millenarist position, but more as a conviction informed by Wisdom.
  • Social history emphasises the reaction of popular messianism confronting Greek-Roman political acculturation.
  • An implicit Christology becomes possible once more at the level of Jesus Himself.

Charles Perrot - Jesus, reader of Scripture

Starting from the evangelical testimony of the churches, this article explores the question of just how far is it possible to distinguish the practice of Jesus as reader of Scripture from the use of biblical passages? Firstly, the diversity of ways of reading of the era needs to be stated, with the emphasis on Isaïah, the twelve prophets and the Psalms. From those passages especially quoted in the synoptic Gospels, it may be noted that Jesus made use of - with discretion - the rules interpretation of his time. His reading is a popular one, continually appealing, often critical and like an overhang of the biblical text itself. The quotation of biblical passages no longer serves to prove what is being said, but rather to place his act of salvation.

Dominique Cerbelaud - Forbidden Christology

The third quest for the historical Jesus has had the effect of shaking the structure of dogmatic Christology, as if the long domination of Christ over Jesus had been reversed. Must then all Christology be considered as forbidden, that is, illegitimate or impracticable? It is true that since the golden age of the 1950's - 1980's, this part of dogmatic theology has not greatly renewed itself, theologians preferring to side-track by reactivating the question of salvation by elaborating a theory of religions. Thus Christology has remained forbidden: remaining and reduced to silence. Nevertheless, an urgent task is vital, that of considering this new relationship between Jesus and Christ, which boils down to articulating the resurrection. Christology will then be able to bid forth, by exploring this decisive and fundamental area.

Jean-Pierre Lémonon - Did Paul de-Judaise Jesus?

This article maintains that Jesus did not seek to abandon Judaism: he considered himself as a master among others. He took part in the debates of his time. Such a point of view is largely accepted, whereas the view on Paul is somewhat different. Paul enabled the group of Jesus disciples to part from the Jewish context, to the point at which it might be considered that he partially broke the links between Christ and his people. In fact, Paul pays a great deal of attention to Jesus of Nazareth. His preaching is in line with that of the Master. Like Jesus, but in different terms, Paul proclaims the reconciliation of all men with God. Christ's faith, which is manifested in His death and resurrection, is at the heart of Paul's thought and preaching. Throughout his ministry the Apostle to the Gentiles is concerned with the salvation of Israel. But, without denying Jesus' Jewishness, Paul's first concern is to proclaim the universal Lordship of the Crucified One.

Jean-Marc Chouraqui - A Jew's reflection on Jesus

For a long time, it was taboo for Jews to even pronounce the name of Jesus. When a Jew does this, the history of those who persecuted hid predecessors and who should therefore bear witness comes to mind. The history of the mystical body of the Church (that of Christ being historical in Jewish eyes) masks the face of Jesus. Once this affective barrier is overcome, before meeting the man, the dogma of Jesus is encountered, especially that of the Man-God, where Judaism only knows men of God. Church history and dogma keep Jesus the Jew at a distance. Only his message before his death can appeal to the Jew, who will often recognise accents or texts from the Biblical or Talmudic traditions. For centuries the Church had often rendered the name of Jesus unbearable to Jews. So that this name might be heard within Judaism a return needs to be operated (etymologically Techouvah - repentance) to the Jewish sources of the Church's message, without overshadowing or running them down, whilst developing their true value. This process has begun: Jewish researchers who have for some time reinstated Jesus within his people can help to do this.